Welcome to the

Electroluminescence of Graphene Project

ANR EluSeM : Electroluminescence of 2D semimetals

Electroluminescence is the phenomenon by which a material emits light in response to an electrical current passing through it. In solids, it is the realm of semiconductors and related organic materials, and results from the radiative recombination of electrons and holes. Today, electroluminescent devices represent the major part of lighting and display devices, and are building blocks of the global information and telecommunication network.
In 2019, LPENS discovered that a high mobility graphene transistor (ZKT-FET) under strong bias becomes electroluminescent in the mid-infrared (MIR, λ=8-10 µm). This discovery is surprising because graphene is a 2D semimetal and therefore electrons and holes are not energetically isolated from each other. This emission gets possible in high-mobility graphene (i) because of the remarkable inefficiency of non-radiative carrier relaxation, and (ii) thanks to an original carrier injection mechanism specific to 2D semi-metals: the Zener-Klein Tunneling (ZKT). [Yang2018]
The objective of ELuSeM is to study and control the electroluminescence of graphene transistors under large bias which could lead to a technological breakthrough in the field of mid-infrared sources.


Can we get a metal to electroluminesce ? According to textbook, no because Joule heating dominates light emission, and the absence of gap forbid the partial insulation of electrons and holes. However, the case of graphene – a very special metal – is different. The EluSeM projects goal is to demonstrate for the first time the electroluminescence of a metal, explain it, and optimize the emission process to evaluate possible applications.

WP 1 : Fabrication of a new generation of ZKT-FETs

WP 2 : Fundamental mechanisms of electroluminescence

The EluSeM consortium is composed of 4 teams from french research institutes and universites :

The LPENS team (Paris) led by Assoc. Prof. E. Baudin is responsible of sample fabrication, DC and RF, Raman, and NIR measurements.

The IL team (Paris) led by D.R. Yannick De Wilde is in charge of MIR far field and near field measurements.

The LMI – INSA team (Lyon) led by Prof. Catherine Journet develops hBN synthesis route for the next generation of large scale high-mobility graphene field-effect transistors.

The LCF-IOGS team (Palaiseau) led by Prof. Jean-Jacques Greffet is responsible of electromagnetic far field and near field numerical simulation, and antenna design.


This section references the publications realized in the context of the ANR project EluSeM.

2D Materials, 2022, 9 p.035008

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Camille Maestre, Yangdi Li, Vincent Garnier, Philippe Steyer, Sébastien Roux, Alexandre Plaud, Annick Loiseau, Julien Barjon, Lei Ren, Cedric Robert, Bo Han, Xavier Marie, Catherine Journet, Berangere Toury

Materials Research Express, 2022, 9 p.065901

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A Pierret, D Mele, H Graef, J Palomo, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, Y Li, B Toury, C Journet, P Steyer, V Garnier, A Loiseau, J-M Berroir, E Bocquillon, G Fève, C Voisin, E Baudin, M Rosticher, B Plaçais


We are continuously looking for motivated and talented students. If you think that your CV could match the group activities, don’t hesitate to contact us.

PhD thesis at LPENS (m/w) : The electroluminescence of Graphene

Postdoc at LPENS (m/w) : High-frequency transport and optoelectronics in graphene vdW heterostructure based transistors


Photo by Frankie Lopez on Unsplash
New publication
Hexagonal Boron Nitride is the perfect substrate for extreme optoelectronics in graphene, but what are its electronic properties exactly and how far wan we push it? LPENS analyzed state-of-the-art hBN from NIMS and LMI/INSA Lyon to find out.
Rémi Bretel joins as postdoc
After a Phd on the STM-induced electroluminescence of 2D materials in Paris-Saclay, Rémi Bretel joins our consortium as postdoc to open new ways of investigating graphene electroluminescence and graphene extreme optoelectronics. Welcome Rémi!


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